Dr. Krause is the former Director of the NIOSH Southern California Education and Research Center and Professor in Environmental Health Sciences at UCLA. Before his appointment at UCLA, Dr. Krause has been associate professor in residence in the Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine of the Department of Medicine at the University of California San Francisco. He received his medical degree and a doctoral degree in orthopedic medicine from the University of Hamburg, Germany, and a doctoral degree in epidemiology from the University of California Berkeley. Dr. Krause retired from UCLA in 2021 but remains an emeritus member.
The focus of the laboratory is to determine the reasons for differential mouse strain responses to chemical agents that cause birth defects (teratogens). One of the malformations that has been induced by a wide variety of teratogens is postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly (absence of digits with the highest prevalence in the fifth digit then the fourth then the third, etc.) which occurs preferentially on the right limb as opposed to the left limb. This malformation has been produced in mice with acetazolamide, cadmium, carbon dioxide, dimethadione, diphenylhydantoin, ethanol, hyperthermia, retinoic acid (13-cis- and all-trans-) and valproic acid. These compounds include many documented human teratogens. In all cases where both the C57BL/6 and SWV mouse strains have been examined with these agents, the C57BL/6 strain is highly susceptible compared to the SWV strain. The goal of our experiments is to determine the reason for this consistent differential susceptibility. Alternatively, several teratogens have been examined in the same two strains for the ability to induce the neural tube defect exencephaly. For this malformation, the relative strain susceptibility is dependent on the specific teratogen. Thus, for some agents the C57BL/6 mouse is more susceptible and for other agents the SWV is more susceptible. Approaches that have been used to generate hypotheses regarding the cause of these strain differences include whole genome scanning followed by positional cloning, gene expression profiling, proteomic analysis, determining synexpression of limb development genes during the embryonic period following administration of the teratogen, and examining other malformations induced by the teratogens when administered at different gestational times that share the same strain susceptibility. Ongoing experiments are designed to determine the reasons for the different strain responses.
Dr. Candace Tsai is an Associate Professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at UCLA. She is a Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) and has several years of practical experience in industry and business settings. She has been working on multidisciplinary research projects and collaborates with scientists in the U.S. and internationally. She has applied her expertise in research and teaching, in the fields of health science, aerosol science, toxicology, engineering, human protection, and policy. She serves as a board member in the Sustainable Nanotechnology Organization, as Associate Editor for Journal of Nanoparticle Research, and on the Editorial Advisory Board for ACS Chemical Health and Safety Journal. With her special expertise in nanomaterials, she has served as an expert for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the nanotechnology programs and she currently serves as a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) committee candidate for the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
Ellenbecker, M.J., and Tsai, S., Health and Safety Considerations for Working with Engineered Nanoparticles, Wiley Interscience, 2015.
Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles
Tsai, C.S.J.*, Shin, N., Brune, J., Evaluation of sub micrometer sized particles generated from diesel locomotive and drilling within an experimental underground mine, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, July 28, 2020.
Back, D., Theisen, D., Seo, W., Tsai, C.S.J.*, Janes, D.*, Development of Interdigitated Capacitive Sensor for Real-time Monitoring of Sub-micron and Nanoscale Particulate Matters in Personal Sampling Device for Mining Environment, IEEE Sensors Journal, May 20, 2020.
Calcaterra, H., Shin, N., Quirk, P., Tsai, C.S.J.*, Low Concentration Analysis of Silver Nanoparticles in Consumer Spray Products, Atmosphere, 11, 403, April 17, 2020.
Khattak, J., Theisen, D., Tsai, C.S.J.*, Sampling Techniques on Collecting Fine Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Exposure Assessment, Scientific Reports, 9, article number: 7137, 2019.
Shin, N., Velmurugan, K., Su, C., Bauer, A., Tsai, C.S.J.*, Assessment of fine particles emitted during paper printing and shredding processes, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 21, 1342-1352, 2019.
Tsai, C.S.J.*, Theisen, D., A sampler designed for nanoparticles and respirable particles with direct analysis feature, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 20:209, 2018.
Ellenbecker, M., Tsai, C.S.J., Jacobs, M., Riedeker, M., Peters, T., Liou, S., Avila, A., Foss-Hanson, S., The difficulties in establishing an occupational exposure limit for carbon nanotubes, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 20:131, 2018.
Pastrana, H., Avila, A., Tsai, C.S.J.*, Nanomaterials in cosmetics products: the challenges with regard to current legal frameworks and consumer exposure, NanoEthics, Aug. 12(2), 2018.
Lo, L., Tsai, C.S.J.*, Heitbrink, W., Dunn, K., Topmiller, J., Ellenbecker, M., Particle emissions from laboratory activities involving carbon nanotubes, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 19:293, 2017.
Tsai, S.*, Shin, N., Castano, A., Khattak, J., Wilkerson, A., Lamport, N., A pilot study on particle emission from printer paper shredders, Aerosol Science and Technology, 1-12, 2017.
Shinde, A., Tsai, S.*, Toxicity mechanism in fetal lung fibroblast cells for multi-walled carbon nanotubes defined by chemical impurities and dispersibility, Toxicology Research, 5:248-258, 2016.
Tsai, S.*, Dysart, A., Beltz, J., Pol, V., Identification and mitigation of generated solid by-products during advanced electrode materials processing, Environmental Science and Technology, 50(5):2627-2634, 2016.
Tsai, S.*, Contamination and release of nanomaterials associated with the use of personal protective clothing, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 59(4):491-503, 2015.
Tsai, S.*, Hofmann, M., Kong, J., Hallock, M., Ada, E., Ellenbecker, M., Assessment of exhaust emissions from carbon nanotube production and particle collection by sampling filters, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65(11):1376-1385, 2015.
Liou, S.H., Tsai, S., Pelclova, D., Schubauer-Berigan, M., Schulte, P., Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 17:413, 2015.
Lo, L., Tsai, S.*, Dunn, K., Hammond, D., Marlow, D., Topmiller, J., Ellenbecker, M., Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 17:435, 2015.
Gordon, S., Butala, J., Carter, J., Elder, A., Gordon, T., Gray, G., Sayre, P., Schulte, P., Tsai, S., West, J., Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 68:305-311, 2014.
Dunn, K., Tsai, S., Woskie, S., Bennett, J., Garcia, A., Ellenbecker, M., Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 11(10):D164-D173, 2014.
Tsai, S.*, Echevarría-Vega, M., Sotiriou, G., Santeufemio, C., Schmidt, D., Demokritou, P., Ellenbecker, M., Evaluation of environmental filtration control to engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14:812, 2012.
Ellenbecker, M., Tsai, S., Engineered nanoparticles: safer substitutes for toxic materials, or a new hazard? Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(5):483-487, 2011.
Tsai, S.*, Huang, R.F., Ellenbecker, M., Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using conventional, constant velocity and air-curtain isolated hoods, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 54(1):78-87, 2010.
Tsai, S.*, Ada, E., Isaacs, J., Ellenbecker, M., Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11(1):147-161, 2009.
Tsai, S.*, Hofmann, M., Kong, J., Hallock, M., Ada, E., Ellenbecker, M., Characterization and evaluation of nanoparticle release during the synthesis of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition, Environmental Science and Technology, 43(15):6017-6023, 2009.
More Publications at Google Scholar
Cushing LJ, K Vavra-Muser, K Chau, M Franklin, JE Johnston, “Flaring from unconventional Oil and Gas Development and Birth Outcomes in the Eagle Ford Shale in South Texas”, Environmental Health Perspectives (2020) 128(7): 770031-770039, PMCID: PMC7362742, doi: 10.1289/EHP6394
Johnston, J.E., K. Chau, M. Franklin, L. Cushing, “Environmental Justice Dimensions of Oil and Gas Flaring in South Texas: Disproportionate Exposure among Hispanic communities”, Environmental Science & Technology (2020), PMID: 32338877, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.0c00410
Johnston, J., and Cushing, L., “Chemical exposures, health, and environmental justice in communities living on the fenceline of industry”, Current Environmental Health Reports (2020), PMCID: PMC7035204, doi: 10.1007/s40572-020-00263-8
Yang, J., L. Cushing, R. Morello-Frosch, “An Equity Analysis of Clean Vehicle Rebate Programs in California”, Climatic Change (2020) doi: 10.1007/s10584-020-02836-w
Cushing L., Blaustein-Rejto D., Wander M., Pastor M., Sadd J., Zhu A., Morello-Frosch R. “Carbon trading, co-pollutants, and environmental equity: Evidence from California’s cap-and-trade program (2011–2015)”, PLOS Medicine (2018) 15(7): e1002604, PMCID: PMC6038989, doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002604
Cushing, L., J. Faust, L. August, R. Cendak, W. Wieland and G. Alexeeff, “Racial/ethnic disparities in cumulative environmental health impacts in California: evidence from a state-wide environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1)”, American Journal of Public Health (2015) 105(11): 2341-2348, PMCID: PMC4605180, doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302643
Cushing, L., R. Morello-Frosch, M. Wander and M. Pastor, “The Haves, the Have-nots, and the Health of Everyone: The Relationship between Social Inequality and Environmental Quality”, Annual Review of Public Health (2015), 18(36): 193-209, PMID:25785890, doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122646
Christina’s immersion in creating sustainable urban environments spans the last decade and globe, including work on housing, transportation and food systems in North and South America. A student of urban planning and practitioner of public health, Christina’s career functions at the intersection of two increasingly interdependent disciplines. She earned her Bachelor of Science in City and Regional Planning from California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo and joint Masters degrees in Public Health and Latin American Studies from UCLA. She currently contributes to a variety of projects addressing environmental health in the fields of transportation, agriculture and decision-science. In her role as Outreach Coordinator for COEH, she manages web and social media presence, curates videos and articles, hosts bi-annual educational symposia, and helps to connect the research, service and training of COEH to the general public.
Richard Jackson is a Professor at the Fielding School of Public Health at the University of California, Los Angeles. A pediatrician, he has served in many leadership positions in both environmental health and infectious disease with the California Health Department, including the highest as the State Health Officer. For nine years he was Director of the CDC’s NationalCenter for Environmental Health in Atlanta and received the Presidential Distinguished Service award. In October, 2011 he was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.
While in California he was instrumental in conceptualizing laws to reduce risks from pesticides, especially to farm workers and to children. While at CDC he was a national and international leader, including leading the federal effort to “biomonitor” chemical levels in the US population. He has received the Breast Cancer Fund’s Hero Award, as well as Lifetime Achievement Awards fromthe Public Health Law Association, and the New Partners for Smart Growth. In October, 2012 he received the John Heinz Award for Leadership in the Environment.
Dick Jackson co-authored two Island Press Books: Urban Sprawl and Public Health in 2004 and Making Healthy Places in 2011. He is host of a 2012 public television series Designing Healthy Communities which links to the J Wiley & Sons book by the same name. He has served on many environmental and health boards, as well as the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Architects. He is an elected honorary member of both the American Institute of Architects and the American Society of Landscape Architects.
I specialise in global reproductive, perinatal and child health, including birth outcomes, neurodevelopment, autism, cognition, and asthma. My work emphasizes the life-course approach, focusing on the early life period as it sets the stage for life long health. My research involves large population studies to examine linkages between prenatal and early life environmental, lifestyle and community factors, and reproductive, childhood and population health. My current research takes place internationally and in California. The overarching aim of my work is creating population based evidence that can impact policies and translate into community based prevention.
Timothy Malloy teaches Environmental Aspects of Business Transactions, Regulatory Lawyering, Regulation of the Business Firm, Environmental Policy and Politics, and Contracts. With Dr. John Froines of the School of Public Health, Malloy is Faculty Director of the interdisciplinary UCLA Sustainable Technology and Policy Program. After receiving his law degree, Professor Malloy clerked for Judge Donald W. VanArtsdalen of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He joined the UCLA faculty in 1998, after spending a combined 11 years in practice at private firms and at the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region III. Professor Malloy’s research interests focus on environmental, chemical and nanotechnology policy, regulatory policy, and organizational theory and decision analysis, with particular emphasis on the relationship between regulatory design and implementation and the structure of business organizations. In addition, he has worked and written extensively in the area of risk governance and prevention-based regulation, melding together his academic interests with his work in the Sustainable Technology Policy Program.
Professor Froines joined the faculty of the School of Public Health in 1981. He received a B.S. in chemistry from UC Berkeley (1963), M.S. in chemistry (1964) and Ph.D. in physical-organic chemistry (1967) from Yale University. He conducted postdoctoral research at the Royal Institution of Great Britain under Nobel Laureate, Sir George Porter from 1966-68. Before coming to the UCLA School of Public Health, Dr. Froines was Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oregon and later served as Director of Toxic Substances at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Deputy Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Dr. Froines served as the Director of the Center for Occupational and Environmental Health for 25 years and is currently the Director of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite. He is Associate Director of the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center and the Director of the UCLA Fogarty Program in Occupational and Environmental Health. He is Director of the Sustainable Technology and Policy Program. He serves on three advisory committees of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. Dr. Froines’ area of expertise is toxicology and exposure assessment. His research interests are in the qualitative and quantitative characterization of risk factors in environmental and occupational health.
Dr. Froines formerly chaired the State of California’s Scientific Review Panel; the central review panel at the State level for identifying toxic air contaminants. He retired from UCLA in 2010 but remains as an emeritus member.