image of factory smoke

‘She Coughs When She’s Sleeping’: Life In Polluted Pacoima

When Amanda Rivera was diagnosed with asthma as a child, everyone told her she’d grow out of it. Instead, Rivera feels like she grew into it.

“It just got worse as I got older,” Rivera said. “I’ve been to like so many doctors, specialists and no one has been able to get rid of the cough.”

For her whole life, Rivera has lived in the same house in the east San Fernando Valley neighborhood of Pacoima, a region with poor air quality in already smoggy L.A. county. Over the years, she’s accrued a tote bag-full of asthma equipment: daily inhalers, rescue inhalers, and nebulizer machines. For Rivera, asthma is just part of her routine.

“Lost cause,” she laughs, then inhales deeply to catch her breath.

Her younger brother, Aaron Ortiz, can’t remember his sister without the condition. It’s part of how he recognizes her.

“She’s always coughing. That’s how you know she’s home,” Ortiz said. “She coughs when she’s sleeping… she can’t laugh without coughing.”

Ortiz took a particular interest in his sister’s condition as a UC Santa Cruz environmental science student. For one class, he researched Pacoima’s history of redlining, industry and high rates of respiratory problems.

“It just hit me… that’s like describing my life,” Ortiz said.

His sister doesn’t hold it against her hometown’s air for possibly causing and likely exacerbating her asthma. But Ortiz definitely does.

“It’s like this weird pain and anger, knowing that, like, you and your family are statistics,” he said.

Pacoima Businesses Are Big Producers Of Chemicals

According to Michael Jerrett, a UCLA public health professor, Pacoima faces multiple challenges when it comes to air quality. For starters, the geography of the region, a valley, causes air-toxic chemicals, like nitrogen dioxide and ozone to settle near ground level. It’s like liquid in a bowl. That’s where small particles get into people’s lungs, where they can cause inflammation.

Read the full article at: https://laist.com/air-quality-pacoima-asthma

By Caroline Champlin originally published April 22, 2021

Picture by 小书生

COEH study links COVID-19 and traffic-related air pollution

A recent study led by UCLA COEH faculty, Drs. Michael Jerrett and Yifang Zhu, and COEH student awardee, Jonah Lipsitt, was published in Environment International. The study found that environmental factors such as air pollution may contribute to COVID-19 incidence and death. The team studied COVID-19 incidence and mortality in Los Angeles and found that chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide exerts large effects on COVID-19 disease incidence and mortality. Neighborhoods with worse air quality also had the highest concentrations of Black and Latinx people, suggesting that environmental factors may have contributed to higher disease and mortality incidence among these populations.

 

To read the full article, visit https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021001562?via%3Dihub

Graph showing emissions decrease

New study: California’s trailblazing diesel rules save lives

California’s trailblazing rules have cleaned up diesel exhaust more than anywhere else in the country, reducing the estimated number of deaths the state would have otherwise seen by more than half, according to new research published today.

 

The policy analysis, led by scientists at the University of California and state agencies, investigated how California’s efforts to clean up trucks, buses, ships and heavy equipment stacked up against the rest of the country’s policies over a 24-year stretch.

The report, published Thursday in the journal Science, shows that the state’s rules have led to substantial improvements even as diesel fuel use has increased and California’s economy and population has grown.

“When I started doing this work 20 years ago, it just seemed daunting to think that you could make a change in air pollution. It just seems so intractable,” said study author Álvaro Alvarado, a scientist at California’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment who previously worked at the state Air Resources Board. “It is gratifying to know that your work has real impact.”

 

Michael Méndez, an assistant professor of environmental planning and policy at the University of California, Irvine, who was not involved in the research, commended the study and the progress it captured. “It was a really great example of how California is continuing to be a global leader around climate change and public health,” said Méndez, author of Climate Change from the Streets.

Still, he said, there’s more work to be done to clear California’s air.

“It’s never enough. California can always do better,” he said, particularly when it comes to protecting people in disadvantaged communities near ports, freeways and other sources of diesel pollution.

Because California still has the worst air quality in the nation, it faces the biggest challenge to meet federal health standards and has led the way in pioneering rules to cut soot and smog.

 

It is the only state that has the authority under the Clean Air Act to set its own emission standards for cars and trucks. The Trump administration revoked the state’s power to regulate greenhouse gases from passenger vehicles, but President Joe Biden is expected to restore it.

Tracking diesel pollution from 1990 to 2014, the researchers found that federal policies requiring cleaner-burning engines and fuels for trucks, buses, trains, ships and heavy equipment cut diesel particulates nationwide by 51%.

But California, the nation’s biggest diesel polluter, cut emissions by 78% percent, despite a 20% increase in diesel fuel use, the study reported. That means California’s engines were burning cleaner.

Diesel exhaust contains an array of pollutants, including fine particles that can lodge in lungs and travel into the bloodstream. These tiny pieces of soot and other materials can trigger heart and asthma attacks, and are linked to lung cancer.

The researchers report that excess deaths from heart and lung disease linked to diesel pollution dropped by 82% in California during that time. The team estimates that if the state had followed federal rules only, diesel particles would have contributed to the deaths of 1,330 Californians in 2014 — more than double the estimated total of 596. (The figures are projections, based on studies that link pollutant levels to increased premature deaths.)

That’s probably an underestimate of the benefits, the researchers say. Diesel exhaust is also a carcinogen, and the team did not investigate deaths from cancer or the general lung health of people who grew up inhaling the fug of diesel around freight corridors.

“We’ve given one little snapshot of one type of impact of diesel particulate matter,” said Megan Schwarzman, a physician and environmental health scientist at the University of California Berkeley.

Michael Jerrett, a professor of environmental health sciences at UCLA’s Fielding School of Public Health who was not involved in the study, said “the argument is quite convincing.”

Multiple authors of the study work for state agencies and one, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, is a member of the California Air Resources Board. But Jerrett said he’s “not very concerned” about their roles influencing the analysis.

Read the full story at: https://www.abc10.com/article/news/local/california/calmatters/new-study…

By Rachel Becker originally published March 25, 2021

Graph comparing different face coverings

COEH student awardee, Liqiao Li, selected for high-impact paper by Aerosol Science & Technology

Introducing the AAAR Lecture Series

This new initiative, supported by the Sheldon K. Friedlander Memorial Fund, and with the Editors of AS&T, will feature a high-impact paper, selected by the Editors of AS&T, to be presented by its author live, webinar-style, monthly igh-impact paper presented by its author live, webinar-style, monthly. Each Lecture will be recorded and available on-demand following the live webinar.

With this new program, being launched by the Endowment Committee, AS&T Editorial Office, and the Early Career Committee, AAAR aims to highlight the research in our community, tie our Journal to other AAAR activities, and provide an opportunity to bring our membership together outside of the Annual Conference. One way we’re achieving this is by engaging with AAAR’s Student Chapters from across the nation to serve as hosts. A different Student Chapter will be the host each month and will take part in a Journal Club of their design, where they meet ahead of each Lecture to discuss the paper to be presented.

Join us for the First Lecture 

Tuesday, March 16, 2021, 1:00pm ET / 10:00 am PT

Assessing the effectiveness of various face coverings to mitigate transport of airborne particles produced by coughing indoors

We know exposure to respiratory droplets has contributed greatly to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the effectiveness of different face coverings against the outward transport of respiratory droplets in the indoor environment is particularly important to help curb transmission.

In this talk, Liqiao Li will discuss the findings and implications from investigating the effectiveness of six face coverings compared to no face covering in reducing cough-generated airborne particles.